★★★★☆ - Highly recommended! But, a bit replaceable with other books or articles.
This book provides valuable practical handson examples and clear explanations of the progress of HTTP protocols. It also offers a clear comparison between HTTP 2 and HTTP 1.
The link about this book is Learning HTTP/2.
- I appreciated the book’s inclusion of the history of HTTP protocols.
- What I value most in technical books like this is actually the inclusion of historical context. While I can learn about the specifications and features of technologies through videos and articles in the internet, understanding the history of a technology is something I can only achieve through books.
- It included the progress of HTTP protocol from versions 0.9, 1.0 and 1.1 to 2.0
- I found the detailed explanations about HTTP/2 headers and accompanying examples to be highly valuable.
- The book was super easy to read. Despite of my slower reading pace, I managed to finish it within a few days.
- I highly recommend this book to students who are students looking for a job or engineers who may be unaware or unconsciously using HTTP 2.
- I, too, didn’t know much about HTTP2 but now I’ve gained some confidence in the subject.
- I intend to revisit this book serveral more times later!
- Through this book, I was able to become somewhat familiar with HTTP 2, but honestly speaking, I still don’t fully understand it.
The history of HTTP protocols
- The birth of HTTP 0.9
- A simple protocol with limited features
- Only supports the GET method
- No headers are included.
- Desipite its poor features, HTTP 0.9 was widely used.
- The birth of HTTP 1.0
- Developed a few years after HTTP 0.9.
- Introduced significant enhancements compared to HTTP0.9, including headers, response codes, redirects, errors, conditional requests, contents encoding and compressions and various methods
- Cannot keep connections.
Hostheaders is optional, not required.
- Limited caching capabilities.
- The birth of HTTP 1.1
- Dominated web communications for over 20 years.
- Allows to keep connections using the
- Introduction of the
Hostheader enables virtual hosting, serving multiple web services with a single IP address.
Upgradeheader allows negotiation for higher-level protocols.
- Improved caching features
- The birth of HTTP 2.0
- Multiplexing - Enables the use of a single TCP connection for multiple requests to the same destination with the same domain name and certificate.
- Framing - The unit of data transmitted. Data transmission occurs in framed units.
- Header compression - Optimizes transmitting similar headers by compressing them using HPACK.
Transition from HTTP 1 to HTTP 2
When transitioning our services from HTTP 1 to HTTP 2, we need to consider certain cases where performance optimization tips for HTTP 1 may deteriorate the performances in HTTP 2.
- A pattern integrating files for fewer requests - In HTTP 2, there’s no need to integrate files because we can request each files concurrently even with just 1 TCP connection.
- A pattern using domain sharding for increased concurrent connections - In HTTP 2, typically, a single TCP connection is sufficient, making the pattern of domain sharding less necessary.
- A pattern using specific domains without HTTP cookies - In HTTP 2 those specific domains aren’t as efficient because HPACK effectively compresses HTTP Headers well.
- Spriting which means integrating multiple images into a huge image and then cut it in-place in the memory - In HTTP 2, multiple contents can be requested concurrently, reducing the need for spriting.
Headers which are used in HTTP 2
The content related to organizing headers in HTTP 2 is so extensive that I decided to skip this part in this article.
Technically, TLS is not required but recommend to use TLS.